Language schools » Language Families » Sino-Tibetan Languages

Sino-Tibetan Sub Families

(403 Languages)



The Sino-Tibetan languages form a language family composed of Chinese and the Tibeto-Burman languages, including some 250 languages of East Asia. They are second only to the Indo-European languages in terms of their number of speakers. Many of the better known Sino-Tibetan languages are tonal. However, tone may evolve quickly and is often an areal feature, and thus poor evidence for a genealogical relationship. For example, while standard Lhasa Tibetan is tonal, other Tibetan dialects are not; and several reconstructions of Old Chinese do not require tone: Tone appears to have developed to compensate for the loss of consonantal distinctions.

Chinese (14)
Chinese Min Dong Chinese, Jinyu Chinese, Mandarin Chinese, Pu-Xian Chinese, Huizhou Chinese, Min Zhong Chinese, Dungan, Gan Chinese, Hakka Chinese, Xiang Chinese, Min Bei Chinese, Min Nan Chinese, Wu Chinese, Yue Chinese.
Tibeto-Burman (389)
Bai (3)
  Central Bai, Northern Bai, Southern Bai
Himalayish (145)
- Mahakiranti (51)
Kham-Magar-Chepang-Sunwari - Chepang: Bujhyal, Chepang, Kusunda, Wayu,
- Kham: Gamale Kham, Eastern Parbate, Sheshi Kham, Western Parbate,
- Magar: Eastern Magar, Western Magar, Raji,
- Sunwari: Bahing, Sunwar
Kiranti - Eastern: Athpariya, Bantawa, Belhariya, Chhintange, Chhulung, Chukwa, Eastern Meohang, Kulung, Northern Lorung, Limbu, Lambichhong, Southern Lorung, Lumba-Yakkha, Moinba, Nachering, Pongyong, Phangduwali, Puma, Dungmali, Camling, Western Meohang, Saam, Sampang, Waling, Yakha, Yamphu, Yamphe,
- Western: Dumi, Jerung, Koi, Khaling, Lingkhim, Raute, Thulung, Tilung, Wambule,
- Tomyang
Newari Niwar
- Tibeto-Kanauri(93)
Lepcha Lepcha
Tibetic - Bodish: Tshangla,
- Dhimal: Dhimal, Toto,
- Tamangic: Chantyal, Eastern Gurung, Southern Ghale, Northern Ghale, Kutang Ghale, Western Gurung, Manangba, Nar Phu, Seke, Eastern Tamang, Western Tamang, Eastern Gorkha Tamang, Thakali, Northwestern Tamang, Southwestern Tamang,
- Tibetan: Atuence, Central Tibetan, Dolpo, Humla, Jad, Kyerung, Nubri, Lhomi, Lowa, Mugom, Walungge, Panang, Stod Bothi, Helambu Sherpa, Spiti Bhoti, Kagate, Tichurong, Tseku, Tsum, Dakpakha, Bumthangkha, Nyenkha, Nupbikha, Olekha, Chalikha, Khengkha, Kurtokha, Gongduk, Lhokpu, Amdo Tibetan, Choni, Khams Tibetan, Adap, Brokkat, Chocangacakha, Dzongkha, Groma, Jirel, Lakha, Lunanakha, Layakha, Brokpake, Sikkimese, Sherpa, Naaba, Sherdukpen, Thudam, Balti, Changthang, Ladakhi, Takpa, Purik, Zangskari
Unclassified Dzalakha
Western Himalayish Baima
- Unclassified (1)
Lepcha Lepcha
Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo (25)
Jingpho-Luish - Jingpho: Jingpho, Singpho, Taman,
- Luish: Kado
Konyak-Bodo-Garo - Bodo-Garo: Bodo, Deori, Dimasa, Tiwa, Riang, Kok Borok, Kachari, Garo, Megam, A'tong, Koch, Rabha, Ruga,
- Konyak: Chang Naga, Konyak Naga, Nocte Naga, Khiamniungan Naga, Wancho Naga, Phom Naga, Tase Naga
Karen (20)
Pa'o Pa'o Karen
Pwo Pwo Eastern Karen, Phrae Pwo Karen, Pwo Western Karen, Pwo Northern Karen
Sgaw-Bghai - Bghai: Lahta Karen, Kayan, Bwe Karen, Geko Karen, Geba Karen,
- Brek: Brek Karen,
- Kayah: Manumanaw Karen, Yinbaw Karen, Yintale Karen, Eastern Kayah, Western Kayah,
- Sgaw: Paku Karen, S'gaw Karen, Wewaw
Unclassified Zayein Karen
Kuki-Chin-Naga (74)
Kuki-Chin (49)
Central Bawm Chin, Haka Chin, Ngawn Chin, Senthang Chin, Tawr Chin, Zotung Chin, Darlong, Hmar, Mizo, Pankhu
Northern Aimol, Anal, Biete, Falam Chin, Paite Chin, Siyin Chin, Tedim Chin, Thado Chin, Chiru, Gangte, Hrangkhol, Kom, Langkang, Chothe Naga, Kharam Naga, Monsang Naga, Moyon Naga, Purum Naga, Tarao Naga, Purum, Ralte, Sakechep, Simte, Vaiphei, Yos, Zome
Southern Khumi Awa Chin, Khumi Chin, Daai Chin, Mara Chin, Mro Chin, Mün Chin, Nga La, Bualkhaw Chin, Chinbon Chin, Asho Chin, Shendu, Welaung, Zyphe
Naga (25)
Naga - Angami-Pochuri: Angami Naga, Chokri Naga, Khezha Naga, Mao Naga, Northern Rengma Naga, Pochuri Naga, Poumei Naga, Southern Rengma Naga, Sumi Naga,
- Ao: Ao Naga, Lotha Naga, Sangtam Naga, Yimchungru Naga,
- Tangkhul: Khoibu Naga, Maring Naga, Tangkhul Naga,
- Unclassified: Puimei Naga,
- Zeme: Koireng, Inpui Naga, Liangmai Naga, Maram Naga, Mzieme Naga, Rongmei Naga, Thangal Naga, Zeme Naga
Lolo-Burmese (73)
Burmish (14)
Northern Achang, Hpon, Lashi, Maru, Pela, Zaiwa
Southern Arakanese, Burmese, Chaungtha, Intha, Taungyo, Tavoyan, Yangbye
Unclassified Xiandao
Loloish (57)
Northern - Lisu: Lisu, Lipo,
- Yi: Central Yi, Dayao Yi, Miqie Yi, Southern Lolopho Yi, Naluo Yi, Wumeng Yi, Wuding-Luquan Yi, Wusa Yi, Sichuan Yi, Laghuu, Southern Yi, Mantsi, Awu Yi, Axi Yi, Azhe Yi, Sani Yi, Eshan-Xinping Yi, Yuanjiang-Mojiang Yi, Xishan Lalu Yi, Eastern Lalu Yi, Western Lalu Yi, Western Yi, Guizhou Yi, Southeastern Lolo Yi,
- Samei
Southern - Akha: Biyo, Kaduo, Honi, Akha, Hani, Sansu, Sila, Lahu Shi, Lahu, Mahei, Phana',
- Phunoi: Bisu, Côông, Mpi, Phunoi, Pyen,
- Buyuan Jinuo, Youle Jinuo, Ugong
Unclassified Laopang, Lopi, Nusu, Zauzou
  Ache Yi, Poluo Yi, Limi Yi, Mili Yi, Muji Yi, Pula Yi, Puwa Yi
Naxi (1)
  Naxi
Unclassified (1)
  Phula
Meitei (1)
  Meitei
Mikir (2)
  Amri, Karbi
Mru (1)
  Mru
North Assam (13)
Deng Darang Deng, Geman Deng
Tani Adi, Galo Adi, Apatani, Bugun, Idu-Mishmi, Nisi, Digaro-Mishmi, Miri, Miju-Mishmi, Na, Sulung
Nungish (1)
  Drung, Lama, Norra, Nung, Rawang
Tangut-Qiang (15)
Qiangic Northern Qiang, Ersu, Guiqiong, Muya, Nayumi, Northern Pumi, Southern Pumi, Queyu, Southern Qiang, Shixing, Zhaba
Gyarong Horpa, Shangzhai, Guanyingqiao, Jiarong
Tujia (2)
Tujia Northern Tujia, Southern Tujia
Unclassified (9)
  Anu, Ayi, Hruso, Khamba, Lui, Palu, Pao, Sajalong, Zahkring
West Bodish (1)
  Dura