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LANGUAGE DESCRIPTION
Eblaite Is an extinct East Semitic language which was spoken in the 3rd millennium BC in the ancient city Ebla, in modern Syria. It is considered to be the oldest written Semitic language. The language, closely related to Akkadian, is known from about 17,000 tablets written with cuneiform script which were found between 1974–1976 in the ruins of the Ebla city. The tablets were first interpreted by Giovanni Pettinato.
Edomite Is the extinct Hebrew Canaanite language of the Edomites in southwestern Jordan in the first millennium BC. It is known only from a very small corpus. In early times, it seems to have been probably written with a Canaanite alphabet; like Moabite, it retained feminine -t. However, in the 6th century BC, it adopted the Aramaic alphabet, and specifically Arabic elements such as whb "gave" (in names) and tgr "merchant" began showing up in texts. Biblically, since "Edom" is an alternate name of Esau, who was a descendant of Eber through Abraham, the Edomites are regarded as being a Hebrew people, as are the Moabites and Ammonites. For this reason, the four closely related south Canaanite languages are sometimes termed "Hebrew languages".
Egyptian Written records of the ancient Egyptian language have been dated from about 3200 BC. Egyptian is part of the Afro-Asiatic group of languages and is related to Berber and Semitic (languages such as Arabic, Amharic and Hebrew). The language survived until the 5th century AD in the form of Demotic and until the Middle Ages in the form of Coptic. Thus it had a lifespan of over four millennia. Egyptian is one of the oldest recorded languages known.
Egyptian Arabic Is part of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family, descended mainly from a medieval dialect of Arabic. It originated in the Nile Delta region (Lower Egypt) around its urban centers, Cairo and Alexandria. Today, it is the national language of Egypt and the mother tongue of more than 78 million people. It also serves as a second language in many countries across the Middle East
While Egyptian Arabic is mainly spoken, it is written occasionally in novels, plays, poems (vernacular literature) as well as in comics, advertising, some newspapers, and transcriptions of popular songs. In most other written media and in TV news reporting, Standard Arabic is used. Like other varieties of Arabic, the Egyptian dialect is written in the Arabic alphabet.
Ekoti Is a Bantu language spoken in Mozambique by about 64,200 people, the Akoti. Ekoti is spoken on Koti Island and is also the major language of Angoche, the capital of the district with the same name in the province of Nampula. In terms of genetic classification, Ekoti is generally considered to belong to the Makhuwa group (P.30 in Guthrie's classification). A large portion of its vocabulary however derives from a past variety of Swahili, today the lingua franca of much of East Africa's coast. This Swahili influence is usually attributed to traders from Kilwa or somewhere else on the Zanzibar Coast, who in the fifteenth century settled at Angoche.
Elamite Is an extinct language, which was spoken by the ancient Elamites. Elamite was an official language of the Persian Empire from the sixth to fourth centuries BCE. The last written records in Elamite appear about the time of the conquest of the Persian Empire by Alexander the Great.
Enets Is a Samoyedic language spoken by the Enets people along the lower Yenisei River in Taymyria in northern Russia. There are two distinct dialects - Forest Enets and Tundra Enets - which may be considered separate languages. There are only about 70 speakers in total, with slightly more speaking Forest Enets. Most speakers are middle-aged or older, and all speak Russian as a second language. It is closely related to Nenets, which it was formerly regarded as a dialect of, and to Nganasan.
English Is a West Germanic language which is the dominant language in the United Kingdom, the United States, the Republic of Ireland, many Commonwealth nations including Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and other former British colonies. It is also an important or official language in many countries formerly under British or American rule, such as India, Nigeria and the Philippines.
Erzya Is spoken by about 500,000 people in the northern and eastern and north-western parts of the Republic of Mordovia and adjacent regions of Nizhniy Novgorod, Chuvashia, Penza, Samara, Saratov, Orenburg, Ulyanovsk, Tatarstan and Bashkortostan in Russia. A diaspora can also be found in Armenia, Estonia, Kazakhstan and the other newly independent states of Central Asia. Erzya is currently written using the Cyrillic alphabet with no modifications to the variant used by the Russian language. In Mordovia, Erzya is co-official with the Moksha and Russian.
The language belongs to the Mordvinic branch of Finno-Volgaic languages a sub-branch of the Finno-Ugric languages. Erzya is closely related to Moksha, but is distinct in its phonetics, morphology and vocabulary.
Esperanto Is the most widely spoken constructed international language. The name derives from Doktoro Esperanto, the pseudonym under which L. L. Zamenhof first published the Unua Libro in 1887. Zamenhof's goal was to create an easy and flexible language as a universal second language to foster peace and international understanding.
Estonian Is spoken by about 1.1 million people, of whom the great majority live in the Northern European country of Estonia. Estonian belongs to the Finnic branch of the Finno-Ugric languages. Estonian is thus related to Finnish, spoken on the other side of the Gulf of Finland, and is one of the few languages of Europe that is not Indo-European. Despite some minor overlaps in the vocabulary due to loaning, in terms of its origin, Estonian is not related to its nearest neighbours, Swedish, Latvian and Russian, which are all Indo-European languages.
Etruscan Was a language spoken and written in the ancient region of Etruria (current Tuscany) and in parts of what are now Lombardy, Veneto, and Emilia-Romagna (where the Etruscans were displaced by Gauls), in Italy. However, Latin superseded Etruscan completely, leaving only a few documents and a few loanwords in Latin (e.g., persona from Etruscan phersu), and some place-names, like Parma.
Even Is the language spoken by Evens. It is an endangered language, having around 3,000 speakers.
Evenk Is the largest of the northern group of the Manchu-Tungus languages, a group which also includes the Even and Negidal languages. It is spoken by Evenks in Russia, Mongolia and China. The basic vocabulary has much in common with the Mongolian and the Turkic languages, indicating a close relation. In certain areas the influences of the Yakut and the Buryat languages are strong. The influence of Russian is general and overwhelming (in 1979, 75.2 % of the Evenk were fluent in Russian). The Evenk language varies considerably and is divided into three large dialect groups: the northern, the southern and the eastern dialect. These are further divided into minor dialects. The written language was created in the late 1920s.
Ewe Is a Kwa language spoken in Ghana and Togo by approximately three million people (Capo 1991). Ewe is part of a cluster of related languages commonly called Gbe, stretching from eastern Ghana to Western Nigeria. Other Gbe languages Fon and Aja. Like other Gbe languages, Ewe is a tonal language. Ewe is one of the better documented languages of Africa, partly due to the massive work of Diedrich Hermann Westermann, who published many dictionaries and grammars of Ewe and several other Gbe languages.
Eyak Is a Na-Dené language that was historically spoken in southcentral Alaska, near the mouth of the Copper River. Today, the language has only one surviving elderly speaker, 88 year old Marie Smith of Cordova, Alaska, now resident in Anchorage, Alaska, and she is also the only surviving full blooded Eyak still living. Because of the dying off of its native speakers, Eyak has become a poster child for the fight against language extinction.
The closest relatives of Eyak are the Athabaskan languages. The Eyak-Athabaskan cluster, together with Tlingit, forms a basic division of the Na-Dené language phylum.