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LANGUAGE DESCRIPTION
Qashqai (Also spelled Ghashghai, Qashqa'i, Qashqay, and Kashkai) is a Turkic language. It is spoken by the Qashqai, an ethnic group living mainly in the Fars region of Iran. Estimates of the number of Qashqai speakers varies, but Ethnologue gives a figure of one and a half million. The Qashqai language is closely related to Azerbaijani, and some linguists consider it to be a dialect of that language. Unlike Azerbaijani, Qashqai still uses the Arabic alphabet (or, more specifically, the Persian modification of it). Many Qashqai also speak Persian.
Quebec Sign Language Known in French as Langue des signes québécoise and typically abbreviated LSQ, is a sign language used in Canada. Most LSQ users are located in Quebec, but a few are scattered in major cities in the rest of the country. LSQ is closely related to both American Sign Language and French Sign Language. Due to segregation by gender in deaf education, males and females use slightly different forms of LSQ. The female form was influenced more by ASL while the male form was more influenced by LSF. Although ASL is used in Anglophone parts of Quebec, it is unusual for a deaf child to learn both ASL and LSQ.
Quechua (Runa Simi) is a Native American language of South America. It was the language of the Inca Empire, and is today spoken in various dialects by some 10 million people throughout South America, including Peru and Bolivia, southern Colombia and Ecuador, north-western Argentina and northern Chile. It is the most widely spoken of all American Indian languages. Quechua is a very regular agglutinative language, with a normal sentence order of SOV (subject-object-verb). Its large number of infixes and suffixes change both the overall significance of words and their subtle shades of meaning, allowing great expressiveness. Notable grammatical features include bipersonal conjugation (verbs agree with both subject and object), evidentiality (indication of the source and veracity of knowledge), a topic particle, and suffixes indicating who benefits from an action and the speaker's attitude toward it.
There are two main dialect groups.
Quechua I or Waywash is spoken in Peru's central highlands. It is the most archaic and diverse branch of Quechua, such that its dialects have been often considered a different tongue.
Quechua II or Wanp'una (Traveler) is divided into three branches: Yunkay Quechua is spoken sporadically in Peru's occidental highlands; Northern Quechua (also known as Quichua or Runashimi) is mainly spoken in Colombia and Ecuador; Southern Quechua, spoken in Peru's southern highlands, Bolivia, Argentina and Chile, is today's most important branch because it has the largest number of speakers and because of its cultural and literary legacy.