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Slovenian language

Slovenian or Slovene (slovenski jezik or shortly slovenšcina) belongs to the family of South Slavic languages. It is spoken by approximately 2 million speakers worldwide, the majority of whom live in Slovenia. Slovenian is one of the few languages to have preserved the dual grammatical number from Proto-Indo-European. Also, Slovenian and Slovak are the two modern Slavic languages whose names for themselves literally mean "Slavic" (slovenskii in old Slavonic).

Geographic distribution

The language is spoken by about 2.2 million people - there is a table of distribution of Slovenians in the world in the article Slovenians.

Slovenes live mainly in Slovenia in Central Europe (2,002,354 (May 06)). In addition, the Slovene language has speakers in Venetian Slovenia (Beneška Slovenija) and other parts of Friuli-Venezia Giulia (Furlanija-Julijska krajina)) in Italy (100,000), in Carinthia (Avstrijska Koroška) and other parts of Austria (50,000), in the northern part of Istria (Hrvaška Istra) in Croatia (11,800-13,100), in southwestern Hungary (6,000) as well as dispersed throughout Europe and the rest of the world (particularly in the United States, Canada, Argentina, Australia and South Africa) (300,000).

Slovenian dialects

Spoken Slovenian has at least 32 main dialects (narecje) (dI) and speeches (govor) (sP). This is a reasonably large number for any language; when considering the amount of speakers, however, this makes Slovenian one of the most diverse languages in the world.

The main regional groups are:
  1. koroško (Carinthian),
  2. vzhodno (Eastern),
  3. severovzhodno (Northeastern),
  4. zahodno (Western),
  5. osrednje (Central),
  6. gorenjsko (of Upper Carniola),
  7. belokranjsko (of White Carniola),
  8. dolenjsko (of Lower Carniola),
  9. primorsko (Littoral).
There are also local groups and subgroups (sG), such as the following, listed by region:

Dialect group Dialect
Upper Carniolan - Upper Carniolan dialect
- Eastern Upper Carniolan subdialect
- Selca
Lower Carniolan - Lower Carniolan
- Eastern Lower Carniolan subdialect
- North White Carniolan dialect
- South White Carniolan dialect
- Kostel
Styrian - Central Savinja
- Upper Savinja
- Solcava subdialect
- Central Styrian
- South Pohorje
- Kozjak subdialect
- Kozje-Bizeljsko
- Lower Sava Valley
- Zagorje-Trbovlje subdialect
- Laško subdialect
- Sevnica-Krško subdialect
Pannonian - Prekmurje
- Slovenian Hills
- Prlekija
- Haloze
Carinthian - North Pohorje-Remšnik
- Mežica
- Jaun Valley/Podjunja
- Ebriach/Obirsko
- Rosental/Rož
- Gail Valley/Zilja
- Kranjska Gora subdialect
Littoral - Resia(n)
- Soca
- Torre/Ter Valley
- Natisone/Nadiža Valley
- Gorizia Hills
- Karst
- Banjšice subdialect
- Istrian
- Rižana subdialect
- Šavrini Hills subdialect
- Inner Carniolan
- Cicarija/Cicarija
Rovte - Tolmin
- Baca subdialect
- Cerkno
- Poljane
- Škofja Loka
- Crni Vrh
- Horjul